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Article
Relapse Tendency among Different Types of Malocclusion

Author: Afrah K Al-hamdany
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2012 Volume: 12 Issue: 2 Pages: 218-228
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

The aim of this study is to evaluate the post-treatment changes in the dental parameters measured at study models in group of Iraqi patients with different Angle's classes of malocclusions. Materials and Methods: 113 Iraqi patients (42 males and 71 females) ,of 14-29 years old at beginning of treatment, were randomly selected and longitudinally assessed in respect to relapse of their orthodontically treated dentitions. Stone study models were taken before treatment, after orthodontic treatment and a third set was obtained approximately 1 month out of retention. Study models were photographed using a digital camera which is mounted on a height-adjustable tripod; with standard camera to object distance. Indirect computer digitization is used; in which the photographs are entered to memory of Pentium IV computer and analyzed using View Box version 3 software allowing data to be directly digitized in the computer and analyzed with the SPSS program.10 variables are digitized :labial seg-ment ,buccal segment, vertical canine, vertical molar, diagonal arch length, inter canine width, inter-molar width, inter molar width, over bite and over jet. Changes in measurements on study models from (before treatment) to (after treatment) were calculated and Paired Student's t- tests were employed to test the changes in means from (after treatment) to (after retention); at P=<0.05 Results: The pooled sample was divided according to Angle's classifications into groups, the results indicate that the changes are varied and ranged from statistically non significant for some variables to significant for the rest. While for Class I crowding patients; the changes are small and statistically non significant for most variables. For Class I spacing patients; a tendency for relapse for most variables were observed. In Class II. D1 crowding, Class II. D1 spacing, Class II. D1 without crowding or spacing, CII. D2 and Class III crowding patients some variables showed significant changes, and no significant difference for rest of variables. Conclusion: Relapse (post-treatment changes) in the dental parameters measured at study models varied among different Angle's classes of malocclusions at the 1-month follow-up. Class I crowding and CII.D1 without crowding or spacing subjects were relatively stable after treatment. Class II.D2; Class I spacing and Class II.D1 spacing subjects were relatively prone to relapse post treatment.

Keywords

computer --- relapse --- retention


Article
تشخيص المؤشرات الايجابية للاحتفاظ بالزبون دراسة استطلاعية لآراء زبائن فندق ديوان أحد فنادق الدرجة الاولى في مدينة بغداد

Authors: أنيس احمد عبداللله --- محمود حسين علوان
Journal: Tikrit Journal For Administration & Economics Sciences مجلة تكريت للعلوم الادارية والاقتصادية ISSN: 18131719 Year: 2018 Volume: 2 Issue: 42 part 2 Pages: 173-186
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Abstract

The objective of this research is to ascertain the ability of the researched hotel to retain its customers by providing various services to ensure its loyalty and to generate revenues accordingly, and To achieve this goal, the research questions were formulated to express the research problem and the hypotheses were built on these hypotheses, Preliminary data were collected through the distribution of (60) questionnaires to the customers of the hotel. Research hypotheses were tested using the Kolmogorov-smirnov test, percentages to verify customer retention indicators and potential revenue generated. The study concluded with a number of conclusions, the most important of which were positive indicators of the hotel's ability to retain its customers, the hotel's revenues from its loyal customers and future indications of customers' intention to return to the hotel. The researcher presented a number of suggestions, the most important of which is the need for more efforts by the management of the hotel and its customers to continue to provide more offers of various services to ensure the sustainability of customer loyalty as the customer is always looking for an organization that offers him valuable value and adherence to any one depends on achieving this .

يهدف هذا البحث إلى التحقق من قدرة الفندق المبحوث على الاحتفاظ بزبائنه من خلال تقديمه عروض الخدمات المتنوعة لتضمن ولائه وتحقيق ايرادات تبعا لذلك. ولتحقيق هذا الهدف تم صياغة الاسئلة البحثية للتعبير عن مشكلة البحث وبنيت على أساسها فرضياته للإجابة عن تلك الأسئلة، وتم جمع البيانات الأولية من خلال توزيع (55) استمارة استبانة على زبائن الفندق، وجرى اختبار فرضيات البحث باستخدام اختبار (Kolmogorov- smirnov)، والنسب المئوية للتحقق من مؤشرات الاحتفاظ بالزبون والايرادات المحتملة المتحققة . وخلص البحث الى مجموعة من الاستنتاجات كان من أهمها وجود مؤشرات ايجابية على قدرة الفندق للاحتفاظ بزبائنه وتحقيق الفندق ايرادات من زبائنه الموالين، فضلا عن مؤشرات مستقبلية عن نية الزبائن لمعاودة المبيت في الفندق. وقدم الباحث مجموعة من الاقتراحات من اهمها ضرورة بذل المزيد من الجهود من قبل ادارة الفندق وعامليه على استمرارية تقديم المزيد من عروض الخدمات المتنوعة لضمان استدامة ولاء الزبائن على اعتبار ان الزبون يبحث دائما عن المنظمة التي تقدم له عروض قيمة متميزة وتمسكه باي منها يعتمد على تحقق ذلك.


Article
The effect of metal alloys and surface treatment on the retention of cast post: An in vitro study

Authors: Jabbar H KAMEL --- Ragheed M BASHEER
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2002 Volume: 2 Issue: 1 Pages: 128-139
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

The main objectives of this study were to determine the effect of different metal alloy posts with different surface treatments cemented within their prepared post canal spaces with two luting agents on the tensile strength of cast posts. Ninety sound upper permanent canines were collected; the anatomical crown were removed about (1) mm above the Cemento-Enamel Junction, Preparation of post space Was made by using slow speed straight hand piece fixed onto swiveled arm of the Surveyor direct acrylic pattern is made and undergoes a casting procedure immediately. The samples were divided into (3) groups thirty in each; first group was casted with MAX-white A alloy, second group with CB Blando (72) alloy and the third group with Palliag M alloy. Three surface treatment procedures for each group were done. Ten samples in each, first group was sandblasted with (100)μm aluminum oxide andsecondone was sandblasted with (50) μmaluminum oxide and the third one receive no surfacetreatment and considered as a control group. Then each of these three groups were further subdivided randomly into two subgroups, (5) samples for each according to the type of luting agent used for cementation of the posts. First subgroup was cemented with zinc phosphate cement, the second subgroup was cemented by adhesive resin luting cement (Aureocem). A tensile strength tester was used to test the tensile strength.The results showed that there was no significant difference in the mean tensile strength among different alloys used and surface treatment with (100) μm aluminum oxide procedure, produced the highest tensile strength when it is used in combination with resin cement.Examination of the type of failure after tensile test showed that most of the samples cemented with resin cement failed adhesively at resin-dentin interface. While for samples that were cemented with zinc phosphate most of failure were cohesive within the cement followed by failure at the metal cement interface.

Keywords

Retention --- cast --- post --- resin


Article
A Comprehensive Survey on Orthodontic Retention Protocols Among Iraqi Orthodontists

Author: Hayder J. Attar
Journal: Journal of Oral and Dental Research مجلة طب الفم والاسنان ISSN: 23106417 Year: 2019 Volume: 6 Issue: 1 Pages: 1-6
Publisher: Iraqi Association for Oral Research الجمعية العراقية لبحوث طب الفم

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Abstract

Background Little research has been conducted to evaluate protocols and trends in orthodontic retention. The objective is to identify the general retention protocols used among orthodontists in the Iraq. Materials and methods the study was conducted via an electronic survey (Survey Monkey® software facility) with branching logic on certain questions. The survey questionnaire was sent to 172 orthodontist members of the Iraqi Association of Orthodontists. Results Vacuum formed retainers were the most frequently used retainer type for the maxillary (61%) and mandibular arch (60%); followed by Hawley retainers (34%) in the maxillary and (30%) in mandibular arch; while fixed retainer was much less frequently used in maxillary arch(9%) and in the mandibular arch(19%). the orthodontists recommended an average of 22 hours a day (SD = 1.5) for retainers should be worn During the retention phase (duration average 9.2 months). The orthodontist responses revealed the patient compliance to the vacuum formed retainers about (43%) and (46%) for the maxillary and mandibular arch respectively; and for the Hawley retainers about (25%) and (40%) in maxillary and mandibular arch respectively, for the fixed retainers was reported as (25%) in the maxillary arch and (7%) in mandibular arch, (77%) of patient compliance to their retention protocol at the first six month after debonding that decrease to (46%) and (9.8%) after one and three years following active treatment respectively. Conclusion Vacuum Formed Retainers were the most common retainer choice in the maxilla and mandible with full-time wear which the orthodontist believed the more patient compliance followed by Hawley retainers then fixed retention.


Article
Comparative study of maxillary complete denture base retention using different impression materials

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Abstract

AbstractAn impression taking for edentulous ridge is the first step in the fabrication of thecomplete denture prosthesis. Various theories have been proposed by differentauthors as how to achieve an optimum impression in different ways.The purpose of this study was to compare the retentive forces required to dislodgemaxillary complete denture bases fabricated by using different impression materials.Twenty completely edentulous patients were selected and three types ofimpression were made for each patient. The 1st group; final impression were madewith zinc oxide eugenol "ZOE", 2nd group; final impression were made with lightbody addition silicone impression material and 3rd group; final impression were madewith condensation impression material. Three stone casts were obtained for eachpatient and three denture bases were fabricated by short curing cycle, retention forceexamined and compared using strain gauge force transducer.Statistical analysis for the data collected using descriptive statistic, ANOVA andLSD, the result revealed that group A "Impression with ZOE" and B "Impression withaddition silicone" show nearly the same results while group C "impression withcondenation silicone" significantly less retentive force than that of group A and B.Retention of complete denture bases is greater in denture bases produced by zincoxide eugenole final impression material than the other examined final impressionmaterials.


Article
Effect of denture adhesives on the retention of maxillary complete denture

Authors: Ibrahim K. Ibrahim ابراهيم خالد ابراهيم --- Yaarob M. Salman يعرب محمد سلمان
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2005 Volume: 17 Issue: 1 Pages: 30-34
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Background: Using of denture adhesives improved the retention and stability of complete denture, so it is important for the success of complete denture treatment when it is used according to its indications.Materials and methods: This project was carried out in an attempt to measure and compare the effectiveness of denture adhesives (Boots, Super corega, and Lacalut denture adhesive) in a well fitting maxillary complete denture at various time intervals. The retention of well fitting maxillary complete denture with saliva alone and with the use of denture adhesives at different time intervals was measured as a resistance to dislodgment using loading apparatus.Results: The study revealed that there is a highly significant improvement in the retention of a well fitting maxillary complete denture after using any one of the three types of the denture adhesive. Statistically the three type of denture adhesives used in this study have approximately the same effectiveness with slightly difference in the time of action.Conclusion: The use of any type of these denture adhesives that were accepted by patient (whether vegetable gum or synthetic polymer, powder or paste) can improve the retention of the complete denture.


Article
The Effect of Acute Urinary Retention on The Accuracy of Serum Prostate-Specific Antigen Level Measurements

Author: Ehab Jasim Mohammad
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2012 Volume: 11 Issue: 1 Pages: 118-122
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:The level of PSA in serum is increased by inflammation of the prostate, urinary retention,prostaticinfection, benign prostatic hyperplasia,prostate cancer, and prostatic manipulation. [3]OBJECTIVE:To study the effect of acute urinary retention on the serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA)concentration.METHODS:Blood samples for serum PSA measurement were obtained (PSA1), and an indwelling urethralcatheter was inserted for 2 weeks. Before catheter removal, a second blood sample for measurementof serum PSA level (PSA2) was obtained. In patients who were able to void, a third sample wasobtained 3 weeks later (PSA3). In the first and second visits, digital rectal examinations (DRE1,DRE2) were performed to assess prostate volume. Mean PSA levels (PSA1, PSA2, and PSA3) andprostate volumes (DRE1, DRE2) were compared.RESULTS:Fourty-two patients with a mean age of 70.18 years (range 56 to 85 years) participated in thisstudy.mean PSA level at the time of AUR (PSA1) was 7.02 ng/mL (median, 5.8 ng/mL; range, 0.9 to30.4 ng/mL). The mean PSA2 level was 5.5 ng/mL (median, 3.9 ng/mL; range, 0.7 to 39 ng/mL),lower than the PSA1 level .This association was statistically non significant P > 0.05. The meanprostate volume at the time of DRE1 (43.4 mL; median, 45 mL; range, 30 to 60 mL) wassignificantly higher than at DRE2 (37.8 mL; median, 40 mL; range, 25 to 50 mL) (P < 0.001).PSA3 was measured in 42 patients 4 weeks after retention (2 weeks after catheter removal). In thisgroup of patients, mean PSA2 and PSA3 levels were 5.5 ng/mL and 5.1 ng/mL, respectively (median,3.9 and 3.5, respectively, P > 0.05).CONCLUSION:Acute urinary retention can increase serum PSA levels. In this series, we found that this effect maycontinue up to 2 weeks.


Article
Comparative study of wettability of different lining, tissue conditioning and denture base materials (in-vitro study)

Authors: Mostafa S. M. Al-Shaikhli مصطفى الشيخلي --- Amir H.M. Khamas عامر خماس
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2012 Volume: 24 Issue: special issue 1 Pages: 24-30
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Wettability of denture base and denture relining materials is one of the most important properties fordenture retention, because it provides a condition in which saliva will spread over the surfaces with ease. Contactangle has been highlighted as the most important parameter concerning wettability of materials. This angle ischaracteristic of the substances due to the surface tension of the liquid and the surface energy of the solidMaterials and methods: One hundred and twenty specimens were prepared in six major groups (light cure acrylic,hot cure acrylic, flexible acrylic, soft liner, hard liner and tissue conditioner) with dimension of (25mm X 25mm X4mm)each group consists from 20 specimens. The wettability was measured using digital microscope and the retentionforce was measured using specially designed equipment.Results: The results obtained in the present study showed that there is a highly significant difference on the contactangle between different materials, different type of fluids (distilled water and synthetic saliva). The contact anglevalue of light cure acrylic is smaller than heat-cure acrylic, tissue conditioner, hard liner, flexible acrylic and soft linerrespectively; it was greater for synthetic saliva than those for distilled water,Conclusion: In conclusion, Light cure acrylic had the best wettability followed by hot cure acrylic and tissueconditioner respectively. There is an effect of the viscosity on the contact angle, and the contact angle has aneffect on the retention force. When the contact angle value was small the surface retention was higher than whenthese angles were large


Article
Risk Factors of Wound Dehiscence After Laparotomy and the Role of Prophylactic Retention Sutures

Author: Haider Abdulhussein Ahmed
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2016 Volume: 15 Issue: 1 Pages: 67-72
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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ABSTRACT :BACK GROUND :(laparatomy wound dehiscence) is a serious postoperative complication which is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate abdominal wounds dehiscence in term of risk factors and to assess the role of prophylactic retention suture in prevention of wound dehiscence.PATIENTS AND METHOD: Prospective study done in the General Surgical unit of Al–Imamain Alkadhmain medical city on 167 patients with 20 patients underwent prophylactic retention suture, from the 1stof July 2013 to the 1st of July 2015.and to know the effect of different factors on incidence of wound dehiscence.RESULTS: The number of wound dehiscence cases was 19 patients out of whole total 167 patients which represent 11.38%. Wound infection was present in 63 patients out of 167 patients (37.2%) and 19 patients out of 63 patients (30.2%) developed wound dehiscence. The other risk factor was chest complication which was present in 76 patients out of 167 patients (45.5%). and 17/76 patients (22.4%) developed wound dehiscence. Smoking was present in 92/167 patients, anemia was present in 80/167 patients and 13/80 patients (16.3%) developed wound dehiscence. Age > 50 years was present in 53/167 patients and 10 /53 patients (18.9%) developed wound dehiscence. steroid usage found in 17/167 patients and 5/17 of them patients (29.4%) developed wound dehiscence, and jaundice was present in 8/167 patients and two/8 patients (25%) developed wound dehiscence. Prophylactic retention sutures were done for 20 patients all of them were male with generalized peritonitis and emergency cases. 19 patients were anemic. 18 patients were smokers and 15 patients were above 50 years of age; from these 20 patients only one patient who had all listed risk factor developed wound dehiscence after prophylactic retention suture wound inspected from 2ndpost-operative day on wordCONCLUSION:Post-operative wound dehiscence rate in the surgical unit of Al–Amamain Alkadhmain medical city is 11.38% and that wound infection, emergency operations and compromised immunity, are factors which increase the rate of wound dehiscence; and prophylactic retention sutures is a valuable maneuver to reduce it.


Article
The Effect of Blended And Comparative – Competitive Learning Styles On Learning And Retaining Underarm and overhead Passes In Volleyball By Fifth Grade Students
تأثير اسلوبي التعليم المتمازج والتنافس المقارن في تعلم واحتفاظ مهارتي المناولة من الاعلى ومن الاسفل بالكرة الطائرة لطلاب الصف الخامس الاعدادي

Author: سعيد غني نوري
Journal: journal of physical education مجلة التربية الرياضية ISSN: 20736452 Year: 2018 Volume: 30 Issue: 1 Pages: 266-286
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The aim of the study is to find the effect of using two styles of learning; blended and comparative – competitive learning on learning and retaining the skills of underarm and overhead passing in volleyball by fifth grade preparatory students from Tigris Preparatory School for Boys in Maysan Governorate. The experimental method was applied to suit the nature of the problem. The study consisted of (85) students 64 of whom were selected as random selected samples (six players were selected for the pilot experiment and four were excluded as trainees and practitioners). The rest of the sample were distributed into three groups (two experimental groups and one controlling group) with (18) students per group.The teaching program took eight weeks, two teaching units per week for each group, and 45 minutes per unit. The researcher used (SPSS) to conclude that the application of blended learning and comparative competitive learning has proved effective in learning and acquiring passing skills in volleyball for the two experimental groups when compared to the traditional method of controlling group. The researcher recommended by necessity of using the two methods of learning to learn and retain other skills of volleyball.

ان الهدف من البحث هو معرفة تأثير استعمال اسلوبين من الاساليب التعليمية وهو التعليم المتمازج والتنافس المقارن في تعلم واحتفاظ مهارتي المناولة من الاعلى ومن الاسفل بالكرة الطائرة لطلاب الصف الخامس الاعدادي لثانوية دجلة للبنين في محافظة ميسان، وقد تم تطبيق المنهج التجريبي لملاءمته طبيعة المشكلة، وقد تحدد مجتمع البحث من (85) طالبا لشعبتي (التطبيقي والإحيائي) وقد اختير منهم (64) طالبا كعينة للبحث بالطريقة العشوائية (ستة لاعبين تم اختيارهم للتجربة الاستطلاعية واستبعاد اربعة منهم راسبين وممارسين للعبة)، بعدها تم توزيع بقية العينة الى ثلاث مجاميع (مجموعتين تجريبيتين وأخرى ضابطة) بواقع (18) طالب لكل مجموعة، وبعد ايجاد الثقل العلمي للاختبارات وإجراء التكافؤ والتجانس للعينة فقد نفذت كل مجموعة من المجاميع الثلاث منهجها كالأتي: مارست المجموعة التجريبية الاولى اسلوب التعليم المتمازج والمجموعة التجريبية الثانية أسلوب التنافس المقارن والمجموعة الضابطة الأسلوب المتبع من قبل مدرس المادة. وقد أستغرق تنفيذ المنهج التعليمي ثمانية أسابيع بواقع وحدتين تعليميتين في الأسبوع لكل مجموعة وبزمن (45) دقيقة لكل وحدة تعليمية. واستعان الباحث بالوسيلة الاحصائية (spss) وبعض القوانين الاحصائية في تحليل البيانات. وقد استنتج بان تطبيق اسلوبي التعليم المتمازج والتنافس المقارن قد اثبت فاعليته في تعلم واكتساب مهارتي المناولة من الاعلى ومن الاسفل بالكرة الطائرة للمجموعتين التجريبيتين عند مقارنته بالأسلوب التقليدي للمجموعة الضابطة، وكذلك ساهم في سرعة تعلم واحتفاظ المهارتين قيد الدراسة. وقد اوصى الباحث بضرورة استعمال الأسلوبين التعليم المتمازج والتنافس المقارن في تعلم واحتفاظ مهارات اخرى بالكرة الطائرة، كما اوصى بضرورة تطبيق هذين الاسلوبين على فعاليات ومهارات اخرى للمرحلة الدراسية نفسها، وضرورة اعتماد الكوادر التدريسية في مجال التربية الرياضية لهذين الاسلوبين والأساليب الفاعلة الاخرى في مناهجهم التعليمية.

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