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The strategy of the US retreat towards Chile and its impact on the arrival of the Communists to power 1969-1970
استراتيجية التراجع الاميركية تجاه تشيلي وإثرها في وصول الشيوعيين الى الحكم 1969-1970

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Abstract

This research deals with the concept of the retreat strategy applied by the United States during the first years of the administration of President Richard Nixon in Chile, in order to preserve the exemplary democracy created by it. This strategy was founded and implemented in Chile by Ambassador Edward M. Korry in an attempt to rid the United States The Nixon administration played down the influence of this strategy by its support of the Christian Democratic Party led by Eduardo Frei and expanded its relations with the parties. In order to balance its relations and reduce the political rhetoric directed against it in Chile, to exercise its position and policy of hardness with Frei and his government.

يتناول هذا البحث مفهوم استراتيجية التراجع التي طبقتها الولايات المتحدة الاميركية خلال السنوات الاول من ادارة الرئيس الاميركي ريتشارد نيكسون في تشيلي، بهدف الحفاظ على الديمقراطية النموذجية التي اوجدتها هي فيها.تلك الاستراتيجية الى أسس لها وطبقها في تشيلي السفير أدوارد كوري في محاولهً منه لتخليص الولايات المتحدة الاميركية من التهم التي ساقتها الاحزاب والقوى السياسية اليسارية واليمنية ضد نفوذ بلاده. فقللت ادارة الرئيس نيكسون بتأثير هذه الاستراتيجية من دعمها لحكومة الحزب الديمقراطي المسيحي بزعامة ادواردو فراي ووسعت علاقاتها مع الاحزاب الاخرى وحتى اليسارية منها، بغية تحقيق التوازن في علاقاتها والتخفيف من حده الخطاب السياسي الموجه ضدها في تشيلي، ممارستهً موقف وسياسةً صلابة مع فراي وحكومته.


Article
Determinination grades and standardized levels of the skills of the normal progress and retreat for young players in the sport of fencing
تحديد درجات ومستويات معيارية لمهارتي التقدم والتقهقر العادي للاعبين الناشئين في رياضة المبارزة

Author: Bashar G.Shehab بشار غالب شهاب
Journal: Sciences Journal Of Physical Education مجلة علوم التربية الرياضية ISSN: 19920695 Year: 2014 Volume: 7 Issue: 1 Pages: 230-249
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

The research problem is that the researcher experience as a teacher and coach for the sport of fencing, note the absence of grades and standard levels of normal progress and retreat skills in the field of training of juniors a , prompting the researcher to study this problem to determine grades and standard levels of normal progress and retreat skills of junior players in the sport of fencing and to achieve the biggest benefit of the process of teaching and training and the saving in the time , effort and money and access to the upper levels achieving the best achievements through the selection of talented people.The research aims to:- To identify the level of the skills of the normal progress and retreat for young players in the sport of fencing.- Determine grades and standardized levels of the skills of the normal progress and retreat of young players in the sport of fencing. the descriptive approach has been used due to suitability and the nature of the research . The sample consists of (100) young Player out of (108) Young Player where it represents the percentage (92.59%) of the original community. The researcher has used statistical processors of ( percentage, Zaúah class, Standard modified grade ) . The researcher reached the following conclusions:- In normal progress and retreat skills tests , the majority of the research sample results were between the two levels (average, acceptable) and a small percentage is (very good, good).- The largest proportion of respondents in the test of skills of normal progress and retreat where the results were within level (average, acceptable), followed by level (good).

إن مشكلة البحث تكمن انه من خلال خبرة الباحث كمدرس ومدرب لرياضة المبارزة ، لاحظ عدم وجود درجات ومستويات معيارية لمهارتي التقدم والتقهقر العادي في مجال التدريب للناشئين، مما حدا بالباحث إلى دراسة هذه المشكلة لتحديد درجات ومستويات معيارية لمهارتي التقدم والتقهقر العادي للاعبين الناشئين في رياضة المبارزة ولتحقيق اكبر فائدة من العملية التدريسية والتدريبية والاقتصاد في الوقت و الجهد والمال وصولا إلى المستويات العليا وتحقيق أفضل الانجازات من خلال انتقاء الموهوبين.هدف البحث إلى : - التعرف على مستوى مهارتي التقدم والتقهقر العادي للاعبين الناشئين في رياضة المبارزة.- تحديد درجات ومستويات معيارية لمهارتي التقدم والتقهقر العادي للاعبين الناشئين في رياضة المبارزة .وقد تم استخدام المنهج الوصفي لملائمته وطبيعة البحث واشتملت عينة البحث (100) لاعب ناشئ من أصل (108) لاعب ناشئ حيث تمثل نسبة (92,59%) من المجتمع الاصلي وقد استخدم الباحث المعالجات الاحصائية المتمثلة بـ(النسبة المئوية ,الدرجة الزائية ,الدرجة المعيارية المعدلة) وقد توصل الباحث الى الاستنتاجات التالية :- في اختبارات مهارتي التقدم والتقهقر العادي كانت نتائج غالبية عينة البحث تنحصر بين المستويين (متوسط،مقبول) ونسبة قليلة تنحصر بين (جيد جدا،جيد).- اكبر نسبة من افراد العينة في اختبار مهارة التقدم والتقهقر العادي حيث انحصرت نتائجها ضمن المستوى (متوسط،مقبول) ويليه المستوى (جيد).


Article
Reform and modernization in the Ottoman Empire
الاصــلاح والتـحديث فــي العـهد العثمانّي الأخير

Author: م. شاهين سهام عبدالرزاق
Journal: Alustath الاستاذ ISSN: 0552265X 25189263 Year: 2018 Volume: 2 Issue: 226 Pages: 115-141
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The boundaries of the Ottoman Empire span several centuries on a vast expanse, across the ancient continents of the world, with different races, diverse peoples and multiple faiths, and the Ottoman Empire was one of the forces that influenced the course of international politics at the time, and then it was weakened by the political balance and administrative, which was governed by the laws of the sultan between the central authority on the one hand, and those who carry out that policy from Baswat and Pikatagwat... and others on the other hand.The weakness is growing in state institutions and despite repeated attempts by some sultans to restore power and prestige to the body of the sprawling empire, it has achieved little or nothing.The first reformist calls were inspired by the spirit and principles of Islam in remedying the imbalance, and the reformers advocated the necessity of applying Islamic law within the various institutions, to return to its prosperous past, and on that basis the pioneering attempts were based on Islam and its basic principles at a stage where it did not expand The Ottoman Empire in the European-style quotation, as the European superiority was not as impressive as the Ottomans and pushed them to quotation, and the Ottomans were preparing themselves a major state during the seventeenth century and the beginning of the eighteenth century, and during that stage many of the leaders of the movement tried Reform in the Ottoman Empire, doing self-reliant reforms not on the quotation from the West, including Shaykh al-Islam Saad Eddin Effendi, Osman II, Murad IV and others. The nature of the research required it to be divided into an introduction, six axes and a conclusion, the first axis addressed the beginning of the Ottoman retreat since 1683, and the signs of weakness experienced by the Ottoman state, as well as the emergence of European supremacy during that era, and the emergence of a number of early Ottoman reformers and their role in the beginnings The reform process.The second theme was devoted to the ways in which they showed Salim III in the reform, which led to his eventual execution, and the third axis was devoted to the study of the reign of Sultan Mahmud II at an important stage of the nineteenth century, with the appearance of a number of eminent personalities in Egypt and Iraq, as well as some changes of Europe. The fourth axis touched upon the Ottoman organizations, the efforts of a number of Ottomans and their influence on Western culture, which led to the promulgation of a number of important decrees (orders), including the line of Sharif kolkhanf in 1839 and the decree of Humayun in 1856, and a number of laws including the Land Law of 21 April 1858 The law of the Tarabo of 14 January 1859, as well as the state law of 1864, and its interpretation in the stabilization of the new correctional grounds. The fifth axis dealt with a brief presentation of the results of the movement of Ottoman organizations, and its influence in the Arab States, especially the state of Baghdad, and devoted the sixth (last) to the features of the Iraqi reformist Midhat Pasha, the most important administrative works in the state of Baghdad, as well as giving a brief presentation Of the subsequent changes to the reign of Medhat Pasha until the early 20th century.In conclusion, we tried to show the most important conclusions reached through the research hubs, seeking reference to several related sources including a number of research and university messages as well as the use of the International Information Network (Internet), and these sources can be identified through the margins Search or list of sources.

امتدت حدود الدولة العثمانية قروناً متعددة على رقعة واسعة, عبر قارات العالم القديم, ويحيا فيها اجناس مختلفة وشعوب متنوعة واديان متعددة, وكانت الدولة العثمانية من القوى التي اثرت في مجرى السياسة الدولية آنذاك, وعلى الرغم من المحاولات المتكررة من بعض السلاطين لإعادة القوة والهيبة إلى جسد الامبراطورية المترامية, الا انها لم تحقق إلا شيئاً وتقدماً ضئيلاً. واستلهمت الدعوات الاصلاحية الاولى روح الاسلام ومبادئه في علاج الخلل, ونادى المصلحون بضرورة تطبيق الشريعة الاسلامية داخل المؤسسات المختلفة, لتعود إلى سالف عهدها المزدهر, وعلى ذلك الاساس كانت المحاولات الرائدة تستند إلى الاسلام ومبادئه الاساسية في مرحلة لم تتوسع فيها الدولة العثمانية في الاقتباس من النمط الاوروبي, إذ لم يكن التفوق الاوروبي بالقدر الذي يثير اعجاب العثمانيين ويدفعهم للاقتباس منه, كما ان العثمانيين كانوا يعدون انفسهم دولة كبرى خلال القرن السابع عشر وبداية القرن الثامن عشر, وخلال تلك المرحلة حاول الكثير من قادة حركة الاصلاح في الدولة العثمانية, القيام بالاصلاحات المعتمدة على الذات لا على الاقتباس من الغرب, ومن بينهم شيخ الاسلام سعد الدين افندي, عثمان الثاني, ومراد الرابع وغيرهم. واقتضت طبيعة البحث تقسيمه على مقدمة وست محاور وخاتمة, تناول المحور الاول بداية التراجع العثماني منذ عام 1683, وعلامات الوهن التي تعرضت لها الدولة العثمانية, فضلاً عن بروز التفوق الاوروبي خلال تلك الحقبة, وظهور عدد من المصلحين العثمانيين الاوائل ودورهم في بدايات العملية الاصلاحية. وكرس المحور الثاني لبحث السبل التي ارتاها سليم الثالث في الاصلاح, والتي ادت إلى اعدامه في نهاية المطاف, وخصص المحور الثالث لدراسة عهد السلطان محمود الثاني في مرحلة مهمة من مراحل القرن التاسع عشر, وذلك بظهور عدد من الشخصيات البارزة في مصر والعراق, فضلاً عن بعض التغيرات الاوروبية. وتطرق المحور الرابع إلى التنظيمات العثمانية, وجهود عدد من العثمانيين وتأثرهم بالثقافة الغربية, الامر الذي إلى صدور عدد من المراسيم (الفرمانات) المهمة, منها خط شريف كولخانة في 1839 ومرسوم همايون عام 1856, وعدد من القوانين منها قانون الاراضي الصادر في 21 نيسان 1858 وقانون الطابو الصادر في 14 كانون الثاني 1859, فضلاً عن قانون الولايات سنة 1864 ودروها في تثبيت الاسس الاصلاحية الجديدة. أما المحور الخامس؛ فتناول عرض موجز لنتائج حركة التنظيمات العثمانية, وتأثيرها في الولايات العربية لاسيما منها ولاية بغداد, وكرس المحور السادس (الاخير) لتناول ملامح تجربة مدحت باشا الاصلاحية في العراق, واهم اعماله الادارية في ولاية بغداد, فضلاً عن اعطاء عرض موجز للمتغيرات اللاحقة لعهد مدحت باشا حتى بدايات القرن العشرين. وفي الخاتمة حاولنا عرض اهم الاستنتاجات التي التوصل اليها من خلال محاور البحث, تطلب البحث الرجوع إلى العديد من المصادر ذات العلاقة شملت عدد من البحوث والرسائل الجامعية فضلاً عن الاستعانة بشبكة المعلومات الدولية (الانترنت), ويمكن التعرف على تلك المصادر من خلال هوامش البحث او قائمة المصادر

Keywords

The boundaries of the Ottoman Empire span several centuries on a vast expanse --- across the ancient continents of the world --- with different races --- diverse peoples and multiple faiths --- and the Ottoman Empire was one of the forces that influenced the course of international politics at the time --- and then it was weakened by the political balance and administrative --- which was governed by the laws of the sultan between the central authority on the one hand --- and those who carry out that policy from Baswat and Pikatagwat... and others on the other hand. The weakness is growing in state institutions and despite repeated attempts by some sultans to restore power and prestige to the body of the sprawling empire --- it has achieved little or nothing. The first reformist calls were inspired by the spirit and principles of Islam in remedying the imbalance --- and the reformers advocated the necessity of applying Islamic law within the various institutions --- to return to its prosperous past --- and on that basis the pioneering attempts were based on Islam and its basic principles at a stage where it did not expand The Ottoman Empire in the European-style quotation --- as the European superiority was not as impressive as the Ottomans and pushed them to quotation --- and the Ottomans were preparing themselves a major state during the seventeenth century and the beginning of the eighteenth century --- and during that stage many of the leaders of the movement tried Reform in the Ottoman Empire --- doing self-reliant reforms not on the quotation from the West --- including Shaykh al-Islam Saad Eddin Effendi --- Osman II --- Murad IV and others. The nature of the research required it to be divided into an introduction --- six axes and a conclusion --- the first axis addressed the beginning of the Ottoman retreat since 1683 --- and the signs of weakness experienced by the Ottoman state --- as well as the emergence of European supremacy during that era --- and the emergence of a number of early Ottoman reformers and their role in the beginnings The reform process. The second theme was devoted to the ways in which they showed Salim III in the reform --- which led to his eventual execution --- and the third axis was devoted to the study of the reign of Sultan Mahmud II at an important stage of the nineteenth century --- with the appearance of a number of eminent personalities in Egypt and Iraq --- as well as some changes of Europe. The fourth axis touched upon the Ottoman organizations --- the efforts of a number of Ottomans and their influence on Western culture --- which led to the promulgation of a number of important decrees --- orders --- including the line of Sharif kolkhanf in 1839 and the decree of Humayun in 1856 --- and a number of laws including the Land Law of 21 April 1858 The law of the Tarabo of 14 January 1859 --- as well as the state law of 1864 --- and its interpretation in the stabilization of the new correctional grounds. The fifth axis dealt with a brief presentation of the results of the movement of Ottoman organizations --- and its influence in the Arab States --- especially the state of Baghdad --- and devoted the sixth --- last to the features of the Iraqi reformist Midhat Pasha --- the most important administrative works in the state of Baghdad --- as well as giving a brief presentation Of the subsequent changes to the reign of Medhat Pasha until the early 20th century. In conclusion --- we tried to show the most important conclusions reached through the research hubs --- seeking reference to several related sources including a number of research and university messages as well as the use of the International Information Network --- Internet --- and these sources can be identified through the margins Search or list of sources. --- الاصلاح، التحديث، العهد العثماني.

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