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Article
Geological Model of Khasib Reservoir- Central Area/East Baghdad Field

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Abstract

The Geological modeling has been constructed by using Petrel E&P software to incorporate data, for improved Three-dimensional models of porosity model, water saturation, permeability estimated from core data, well log interpretation, and fault analysis modeling.Three-dimensional geological models attributed with physical properties constructed from primary geological data. The reservoir contains a huge hydrocarbon accumulation, a unique geological model characterization with faults, high heterogeneity, and a very complex field in nature.The results of this study show that the Three-dimensional geological model of Khasib reservoir, to build the reservoir model starting with evaluation of reservoir to interpretation of well log by using IP software for 14 wells, defining and divided the layers based on the GR Log and Resistivity log to nine layers and then maintained the fault model for a divided central area to four regions. Compared porosity log with porosity core to estimate correction porosity and enter this value to predict the permeability value for each layer by using FZI, and RQI method. The model Containing faults, horizons, zones, and layers depending on this data to make gridding by using pillar gridding.This paper presents a geological modeling and an uncertainty analysis for stock-tank original oil in place. The distribution of the faults is also discussed.


Article
Static Model of Zubair Reservoir in Luhais Oil Field

Authors: Ahmed Abdulmueen Alher --- Mohammed Saleh Aljawad --- Abdullah Abdulhasan Ali
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2018 Volume: 19 Issue: 1 Pages: 57-60
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Static reservoir modeling is the interacting and analysis of the geological data to visualize the reservoir framework by three-dimensional model and distribute the static reservoir properties. The Petrel E&P software used to incorporate the data. The interpreted log data and core report used in distribution of petrophysical properties of porosity, water saturation and permeability for Zubair reservoir in Luhais oil field. The reservoir discretized to 274968 cells in increments of 300, 200 and 1 meter in the direction of X, Y, and Z respectively. The geostatistical approach used in the distribution of the properties of porosity and water saturation overall the reservoir units. The permeability has been calculated with classical method depending on the routine core reports data. The results show the main reservoir unit is 1C where its porosity and permeability are about 20% and 400md respectively. This unit underlaid by barrier unit and rounded by water. The estimated value of oil in place is about 209*106 ScM3, most of it accumulate at 1C unit and the other at the upper parts of unit 1E.


Article
Hydrochemistry and Assessment of Ground Water Quality of Al-Shekhan – Bartellah Area (Northern Iraq)
هيدروكيمائية وتقيم نوعية المياه الجوفية في منطقة الشيخان- برطلة ( شمال العراق)

Author: Umar N. Abdul Qader عمر نبهان عبدالقادر
Journal: Tikrit Journal of Pure Science مجلة تكريت للعلوم الصرفة ISSN: 18131662 Year: 2009 Volume: 14 Issue: 1 Pages: 42-50
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Abstract

The main source of water in the study area is the ground water and rainfall during wet season. Three main aquifers were identified in the study area, PilaSpi aquifer, Al-Fatha aquifer and Injana aquifer. Ten ground water samples were collected during October 2006 from selected wells distributed within Al-Shekhan–Bartellah area. Temperature, pH, and Electrical conductivity were measured in situ, in addition to major soluble ions (Cations and Anions). Total dissolved solids, were analized in laboratory, and total hardness were calculated. Three water types were recognized; Ca-HCO3, Mg-HCO3 and Mg-SO4. The ionic strength of each sample and saturation indices (SI) of calcite, dolomite and gypsum in aquifers were calculated, it was found that all the water samples were undersaturated with respect to calcite and dolomite except wells (w4 and w5) which are in equilibrium state, and all water samples were undersaturated with respect to gypsum. Ground water in study area is potable and suitable for irrigation depending on calculated of sodium percentage (Na%), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), permeability index (PI) also by using Wilcox diagram and US salinity diagram .

أن المصدر الرئيس للمياه في منطقة الدراسة هو المياه الجوفية بالإضافة الى الإمطار في الأشهر الرطبة .تم تميز ثلاثة خزانات رئيسية حاملة للمياه في منطقة الدراسة وهي خزان البلاسبي،خزان الفتحة وخزان انجانة. جمعت عشر نماذج مائية خلال شهر تشرين الأول 2006 من أبار مائية موزعة في منطقة الدراسة لتحديد نوعية المياه وتقيم استخداماتها للإغراض المختلفة، حيث تم قياس درجة حرارة ،الدالة الحامضية والتوصيلية الكهربائية للنماذج المائية في الحقل ، بالإضافة الى تحليل العناصر الرئيسية والملوحة في المختبروحساب درجة العسرة للمياه . حيث تم تميز ثلاثة أنواع من المياه وهي: كاربونات الكالسيوم ، كاربونات المغنسيوم وكبريتات المغنسيوم . كذلك تم حساب القوة الأيونية لكل نموذج وحساب معامل التشبع لمعادن ( الكالسايت ، الدولومايت والجبسوم) المذابة في الخزانات المائية لمنطقة الدراسة حيث وجد أن معدن الكالسايت والدولومايت كانا في حالة تحت الاشباع لجميع النماذج باستثناء النماذج( 4 و5 ) فقد وصلا الى حالة التوازن بينما كانت جميع النماذج في حالة تحت الاشباع بالنسبة لمعدن الجبسوم . كما تم تقيم المياه الجوفية في المنطقة حيث ظهرت بأنها صالحة للشرب و للري بالاعتماد على حساب النسبة المئوية للصوديوم، نسبة امتزاز الصوديوم ومعامل النفاذية وكذلك باستخدام مخطط وليكوكس ومختبر الملوحة الأمريكي.


Article
THE EFFECT OF MAIN NONLINEARITIES ON SERVO

Author: Shaima A. Mahdi
Journal: Iraqi journal of mechanical and material engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الميكانيكية وهندسة المواد ISSN: 20761819 Year: 2009 Volume: first conf./ eng. coll. Issue: A Pages: 119-134
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

Servo systems are indispensable in modern industry. For example, they arewidely used in robotics, electrical vehicles and automated factories. Therefore, thestudy of the stability of the system and its response to linear and nonlinear elements isan important control system problem. This paper focuses on determination of servosystem transfer function and the effect of the main nonlinearities on its stability bydeveloping an algorithm for the system and simulating using MATLAB. The algorithmused is the describing function algorithm and its analysis ,since it is one of the methods used to analyze nonlinear systems stability.


Article
Torque and Magnetic Flux Analysis Using an Advanced Dynamic Dynamometer Test Bed for Electromechanical Motors

Authors: J.M. Al-Baiaty --- N.F. Daoud --- H.G. Khayat
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Applied Physics المجلة العراقية للفيزياء التطبيقية ISSN: 18132065 23091673 Year: 2009 Volume: 5 Issue: 1 Pages: 19-26
Publisher: iraqi society for alternative and renewable energy sources and techniques الجمعية العراقية لمصادر وتقنيات الطاقة البديلة والمستجدة

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Abstract

This paper describes the torque and magnetic flux analysis using an advanced dynamic dynamometer test bed for electromechanical motors. Test motor was tested under different levels of continuous loads and high bandwidth complex duty cycle loads in order to provide data to characterize the nonlinear properties of electric motors. The test bed to obtain torque saturation limit data is comprised of a servo motor which serves as a dynamic load emulator, a brake, a clutch, and full sensor array for comprehensive monitoring of test variables, (including magnetic flux density sensor). The magnetic flux test was conducted to discriminate magnetic saturation from torque saturation. Given the permanent magnet motor test system designed for a desired saturation limit, it is possible to predict saturation using a properly defined dynamic duty cycle norm as a function of the operating conditions and the actuator design parameters. In this paper, the temperature effects on the magnetic properties of the permanent magnet material were the principal objectives.


Article
Effect of Therapeutic Thoracocentesis on Short Term Peripheral Oxygen Saturation and other Hemodynamics, in Al-Najaf

Authors: Munketh AbdulMuhsen --- Ali H. Almusawy --- Sadiq Jebar Almohana
Journal: Medical Journal of Babylon مجلة بابل الطبية ISSN: 1812156X 23126760 Year: 2012 Volume: 9 Issue: 4 Pages: 786-791
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

AbstractBackground: Pleural effusion often causes abnormal pulmonary gas exchange. Thoracentesis is commonly used to relieve dyspnea in patient with pleural effusion, but its effect upon arterial oxygenation is varied and poorly understood. Aim of study: To determine the effect of therapeutic thoracentesis on arterial O2 saturation and other hemodynamics.Patients and methods: We studied thirty patients (20 men and 10 women) mean age 44.5 year with unilateral pleural effusion of varied causes. The diagnosis of pleural effusion was depend on clinical and radiological bases. Patients with large pleural effusion were included in this study. At the time of investigation, all patients were clinically stable and each patient was informed about the possible side effect of the Procedure .Results: This study reveals that the arterial O2 saturation was significantly decreased after thoracentesis The pulse rate was significantly decreased after thoracentesis . But no significant changes were found in either blood pressure or respiratory rate . Conclusion: There was a significant reduction in arterial O2 saturation after thoracentesis . There was significant reduction in pulse rate after thoracentesis . while there was no change in blood pressure and respiratory rate .

الخلاصةاستسقاء الجنب غالبا ما يسبب اعتلال تبادل غازات الرئة , إن سحب ذلك الاستسقاء يستخدم بصورة شائعة لإزالة ضيق التنفس الناتج عن استسقاء الجنب, ولاكن تأثير ذلك السحب على أوكسجين الدم متغير وغير مفهوم .الغرض من الدراسة هو لتحديد تأثير عملية سحب الاستسقاء على نسبة إشباع الأوكسجين الشرياني وبعض الفعاليات الحيوية .تضمنت الدراسة ثلاثين مريضا (عشرون رجلا وعشرة نساء ) معدل أعمارهم 44.5 سنة والذي يعانون من استسقاء الجنب آحادي الجانب , والمتسبب عن مختلف الأمراض , إن تشخيص ذلك الاستسقاء مبني على أسس سريريه وإشعاعية .هذه الدراسة بينت إن نسبة إشباع الأوكسجين الشرياني انخفض بصورة مهمة بثلثي المرضى , وارتفع بصورة مهمة بثلث من المرضى , كما بينت الدراسة انخفاض مهم في سرعة النبض الشرياني بعد عملية السحب , ولا يوجد تأثير لعملية السحب على كل من ضغط الدم وسرعة التنفس .استنتجنا من هذه الدراسة بان تأثير عملية سحب استسقاء الجنب على نسبة إشباع الأوكسجين الشرياني كانت مختلفة , وهذا الاختلاف ربما نتج عن اختلاف أسباب الاستسقاء , وكذلك فان سرعة النبض الشرياني انخفضت بصوره ملحوظة , ولا تغيير في كل من ضغط الدم ومعدل التنفس.


Article
Evaluation of Gharraf River Water for different Uses, South Iraq

Authors: Moutaz A. Al-Dabbas --- Ayser M. Al-Shamma'a --- Kareem G. Al-Mutawki
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Science المجلة العراقية للعلوم ISSN: 00672904/23121637 Year: 2018 Volume: 59 Issue: 3C Pages: 1697-1907
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Water quality has become an important requirement in recent years, assumed the enormous pressure on water resources. As a result of the rapid population growth and climate change. Seven sampling stations were chosen along the river, specifically near the important cities. After analyzing the water samples, it was found that pH values range from (7.1 to 7.5). The values of total dissolved ions ranged from (730 to 1390) mg/l. It was found that the sodium percentage in the river water samples ranged from (36.8 to 51.3), which is acceptable for irrigation purposes. The water content of magnesium hazard ranges from (45.1 to 48.6), it is within the permissible limits for watering purposes. The residual sodium amounts range from (-4.01 to -2.86) and are within acceptable limits. Water quality index model was used and according to this model classification, it was found that water is good. PHREEQC model was used to identify the geochemical changes of the river water with distance, found that carbonate mineral were under saturation, while clay mineral were in saturation phase.

Keywords

Gharraf River --- quality --- SAR --- Saturation index


Article
EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON DIRECT EVAPORATIVE AIR COOLER PERFORMANCE WITH CELLULOSIC PADS

Author: Alaa Ruhma Al-Badri
Journal: Al-Qadisiyah Journal for Engineering Sciences مجلة القادسية للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 19984456 Year: 2017 Volume: 10 Issue: 4 Pages: 525-535
Publisher: Al-Qadisiyah University جامعة القادسية

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Abstract

Evaporative cooling is an economic and environment-friendly technique for air cooling. This technique may involve air cooling with humidification (direct evaporative cooling) or sensible air cooling only (indirect evaporative cooling). In this study, the saturation efficiency of direct evaporative cooling (DEC) was investigated with rigid media cellulose (RMC) pads and compared with that of wood straw pads. Face air velocity on pads was varied between 0.5 and 3.0 m·s-1. The time change of ambient air dry-and wet-bulb temperatures, water temperature, and outlet air dry-bulb temperature were measured. For cellulosic pad, the experimental data showed that the saturation efficiency reached 71% of its steady state value in the first 100 seconds of operation and the final steady state value was reached after 600 seconds. The saturation efficiency decreases with the increase in the air velocity. It could be shown that the DEC is more efficient with wood straw pads compared to RMC pads. Predicted data using the published literature underestimated the saturation efficiency of DEC by about 18%.


Article
Nature of Soil-Water Characteristics Curves (SWCC)for Soils from Anbar Governorate
طبيعة منحنيات خصائص التربة – الماء لترب من محافظة الانبار

Authors: Ahmed H. Abdul Kareem احمد حازم عبدالكريم --- Khalid R. Mahmood خالد راسم محمود
Journal: Anbar Journal of Engineering Sciences مجلة الأنبار للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 19979428 Year: 2010 Volume: 3 Issue: 1 Pages: 61-80
Publisher: University of Anbar جامعة الانبار

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Abstract

Determinations of unsaturated soil parameters using experimental procedures are time consuming and difficult. In recent years, the soil–water characteristic curve (SWCC) has become an important tool in the interpretation of the engineering behavior of unsaturated soils. Difficulties associated with determining such parameters have justified the use of indirect determination. This paper presents the general nature of the SWCC for soils with different plasticity limits, index and gradation, in terms of gravimetric water content and degree of saturation versus soil matric suction from Anbar governorate. In order to investigate possible relationships between the plasticity limits, index, percent passing no.200 and SWCC, 7 type of soils were tested to find its SWCC experimentally and compared the result with the curves obtained from different model presented in the literature. The objectives of the paper were to check the validity of these models with the experimental results. The results shows a good agreement and to present a simple method for inferring the SWCC for soils, taking into account the liquid limit, plastic limit, plasticity index and percent of fines passing sieve no.200.

ان حساب معاملات الترب الغير مشبعة باستخدام الطرق التجريبية يستعمل لغرض اختصار الزمن والصعوبات. وفي السنوات الحديثة ، فان منحني خصائص التربة- الماء اصبح وسيلة مهمة في تمثيل التصرف الهندسي للترب غير مشبعة. الصعوبات المصاحبة لحساب مثل هذه المعاملات يتم فقط باستخدام الحسابات غير مباشرة. هذا البحث يمثل ايجاد الطبيعة العامة للـ SWCC لترب لها حد اللدونة، معامل اللدونة، والتدرج تحت مصطلحات المحتوى الرطوبي الجاذبي ودرجة التشبع متغيرةً مع قوة الامتصاص لانواع مختلفة من الترب في محافظة الانبار. لغرض التحري عن العلاقات المحتملة بين حد اللدونة ، معامل اللدونة ، المار من منخل رقم 200 ، وSWCC هناك سبع انواع من الترب استخدمت في الفحوصات لايجاد SWCC مختبريا ومقارنتها مع نتائج المنحنيات التي تم الحصول عليها من موديلات مختلفة موضحة في البحث. الهدف من البحث هو تدقيق مدى ملائمة الموديلات المستخدمة مع النتائج المختبرية المستحصلة التي اظهرت نتائجها ان هناك توافق جيد وكذلك اوجدت طريقة بسيطة لحساب SWCC لانواع الترب مع الاخذ بنظر الاعتبار حساب حد السيولة ، حد اللدونة ، معامل اللدونة ، ونسبة المار من منخل رقم 200 .


Article
Simple Sliding Mode Controller with Adaptive Fuzzy Saturation Function for Nonlinear Single Input-Single Output System
مسيطر مضبب بسيط لدالة اشباع مبهمة لمنضومات غير خطية ذات دخل مفرد وخرج مفرد

Authors: Hanady A. Jaber --- Nahida N.Kadhim --- Samyaa Y. Muhammad
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2010 Volume: 28 Issue: 9 Pages: 1747-1756
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

Sliding mode control algorithm that uses fuzzy saturation function is designed inthis paper for nonlinear system. The fuzzy saturation function is suggested to improvethe accuracy and the robustness of the sliding mode control which are partially lostwhen using a fixed boundary layer. The fuzzy saturation function is simple, in thesense that both the membership functions and the rule base are simple. The overallcontrol algorithm has stability assurance for the closed-loop controlled system;therefore, it may be applied to control different systems, in this paper this algorithm isapplied on nonlinear SISO system with 10%parameter uncertainty and nonlineardisturbance. Simulation results show that the developed algorithm has good controlperformance with negligible chattering.

البحث يتضمن استخدام خوارزمية لمسيطر مضبب عن طريق دالة اشباع مبهمة (fussyلتحسين الدقة و المتانة لهذا المسيطر و اللتان فقدتا بشكل جزئي نتيجة لوجود saturation functionلقد اعتبرت دالة الاشباع المبهمة بسيطة لكون المعادلات والقواعد . (sliding mode) طبقة محددة حولالاساسية المستخدمة بسيطة .هذا النوع من المسيطرات يضمن استقرارية للمنضومة لذا فهو يطبق علىمنضومات مختلفة , ففي هذا البحث تم تطبيق المسيطر المضبب على منضومة غير خطية ذات دخل واحدوخرج واحد وبوجود عدم موثوقية للعناصر بنسبة 10 % اضافة الى وجود مؤثرات خارجية غير خطية .الذي كان يحدث (chattering) وقد اضهرت النتائج ان هذه الخوارزمية اعطت اداء جيد من حيث اهمال.(SMC) نتيجة استخدام الطريقة المالوفة للمسيطر المضبب

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