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Article
USING OF PLASMID SCANNING IN EPIDEMIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION FOR SALMONELLA TYPHI BACTERIA IN POLLUTED WATER SUPPLY AND PATIENTS IN AL-SADER CITY
استخدام المسح البلازميدي في التحري الوبائي عن جرثومة Salmonella typhiفي عينات من مياه الشرب والمرضى في مدينة الصدر

Author: آمنة نعمة الثويني1
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Biotechnology المجلة العراقية للتقانات الحياتية ISSN: 18154794 Year: 2009 Volume: 8 Issue: 1 Pages: 419-427
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

A total of 452 water samples collected from Al-Sader city were examined from the 1st of January 2007 to the 1st of September 2007. The results revealed the contaminated of 169 (37.4%) samples with different types of pathogenic bacteria, 31 isolates were identified as Proteus mirabilis, 10Citobacter spp., 15Streptococcus spp., 94Escherichia coli, 15 non-vibrio cholerae 01 and 4 as Salmonella typhi. While 76 isolates of S. typhi were isolated from 2517 patients, depending on biochemical identification and Api system epidemiological markers of the samples were studied including biotyping, serotyping and plasmid profile for both source of isolates as epidemiological index. The results of plasmid profile confirmed the similarity in the plasmid bands arrangement in all S. typhi isolates from patients and water samples which indicate that infection was transmitted through water.

تم فحص 452عينة من المياه المجهزة لمدينة الصدر للمدة من 1/1/2007 ولغاية 1/9/2007، أظهرت النتائج وجود 169 (37.4%) عينة ملوثة بمختلف الأنواع البكتيرية. شخصت 31عزلة لبكتريا Proteus mirabilis و 10 spp.Citrobacter و 15 Strept. spp. و94 E. coli و 15 تعود إلى 01 non-Vibrio cholerae و4 عزلات لبكترياSalmonella typhiفي حين شخصت 124 عزلة لبكتريا S. typhiمن مجموع الــــمرضى المراجعين والبالغ 2032. بالإعتماد على الاختبارات الكيموحيوية ونظام التشخيص ApiAnalytic profile index. تمت دراسة العلامات الوبائية Epidemiological Markers والتي تضمنت الحساسية للمضادات الحياتية والتنميط الحيوي والتنميط المصلي فضلاً عن دراسة المحتوى الوراثي والذي شمل عينات مياه الشرب والمرضى المراجعين للتحري عن مصدر الإصابة Index caseفي حالة الرصد الوبائي. أكدت نتائج مسح البلازميدات وجود تماثل في توزيع البلازميدات، في جميع عزلات بكتريا S. typhiالمعزولة من المرضى والماء مما يدل على وجود عدوى منقولة عن طريق المياه.


Article
Detcetion Of Bacterial Contamination Of Drinking Water In The Right Side Of Mosul City By Multiple Tubes Fermentation Technique

Authors: Musaab O. Hamad Al- Ballo --- Adeba Y. Sharif AL-Nua'aman
Journal: JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE مجلة التربية والعلم ISSN: 1812125X Year: 2019 Volume: 28 Issue: 2 Pages: 167-184
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

This study aimed to investigate bacterial contamination of drinking water in the right side of Mosul city using multiple tubes fermentation technique, depending on total coliform count as an indicator, this study takes seven months started from December, 2017 to June, 2018. Three hundered fifteen smples were collected from water purification plants and 12 quarters in the right side of Mosul city include (Msherfa, 17-Tamoz, Al-refaee, Tal- alromman, Al-moa'alemen, Al-shohada'a, Nabls, Al-resala, Al-a'amel, Al-tayaran, Wadi hajar and Al-mansour). The results showed contaminate of water in purification plants during April and May only while the contamination wase in all study months of the water reaching consumers with a rate reaching 40.5% of total samples and the highest was in Al-refaee quarter (71.4%) whereas the lowest reached 14.3% in Nabls quarter, the results also showed variations in the contamination during the study monthes, it's highest in May as it reached 83.3% whereas the lowest was in January as it reached 16.7%. The results of chlorine concentration test showed that the residual chlorine was less than the accepted levels in some quarters formed a ratio reached 32.1%, while it was higher than the accepted level at a ratio of 2.4%, whereas the residual chlorine in 65.5% from total samples was within the accepted level. In this study we isolate and identificate some of the contaminating bacteria such as Escherichia coli , Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter aerogenes , Proteus mirabilis, Citrobacter freundii and Salmonella typhi , Escherichia coli forming the higher rate 40.8% whereas the lower was Citrobacter freundii 4.1% . Pseudomonas aeruginosa was also isolated in this study at 14.3% of the total isolated bacteria.


Article
Modeling of the Dissolved Oxygen Profile in Marsh Water by Numerical Solution of ADE Using Finite Difference Method

Author: Mohammed Dekheel Selman
Journal: Thi-Qar University Journal for Engineering Sciences مجلة جامعة ذي قار للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 20759746 Year: 2011 Volume: 2 Issue: 3 Pages: 57-73
Publisher: Thi-Qar University جامعة ذي قار

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Abstract

To evaluate the environmental impact of pollution, mathematical models play a major role in predicting the pollution level in the regions under consideration. Computer models are becoming increasingly important tools in every environmental management aspects.A general one dimensional water quality model (Advection-diffusion Equation ADE) has been developed the dissolved oxygen in Abu-Zirig marsh water. The general one-dimensional model equation was solved using the numerical solution by finite difference discritization andprocedure was prepared by writing a computer program in MATLAB program (version 7.6).


Article
Study the Effect of Baghdad City on the Tigris River Water Pollution
دراسة تأثير مدينة بغداد على نهر دجلة

Authors: Hussain M. Al-Shemari حسين موسى الشمري --- Ihssan A. Abdulhussain احسان عبدالكريم عبدالحسين
Journal: Basrah Journal for Engineering Science مجلة البصرة للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: Print: 18146120; Online: 23118385 Year: 2013 Volume: 13 Issue: 1 Pages: 140-156
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

Water pollution is the most important tasks facing all countries in the world to obtain suitable water for municipal, industrial, and agricultural uses. This study concerns with the effect of Bagdad city waste water on pollution and quality of Tigris River water using index of Aquifer water quality (IAWQ). The accuracy of chemical analyses of the selected water samples are conduced according to world standards of health classifications. Results of these analysis show that only two types of the 13th tested sample are ( certain ) ,while the other patterns ( models )are of the ( probable certain ). Cluster analysis is applied to evaluate the studied water characteristic. The results of the cluster analysis show the presence of three varying groups in their impact on their chemical properties on water .According to the cluster analysis and permissible limits of the variables, three chemical variables cadmium, lead, and calcium are selected to indicate its impact on the studied area. It is found that when using (IAWG) for the Tigris River, there is an increase in the values of the index along the river from its entry to Baghdad until it meets the Diyala river, showing a clear pollution of the Tigris river water.

يعد تلوث الميـــاه من أهم الصعاب التي تواجه اغلب دول العالم للحصول على المياه الصالحه للاستعمالات البلدية والصناعية والزراعية. تناول البحث دراسة تأثير المخلفات السائلة الناتجة من مدينة بغداد والملقات في مياه نهر دجلة عن طريق تطبيق المؤشر العام لنوعية المياه Index of Aquifer Water Quality (IAWQ). تم فحص دقة التحاليل الكيميائية لنماذج المياه و حسب تصنيف الصحة. بينت هذه التـحاليل إن نموذجين من الثلاثة عشر نموذج التي تم اختيارها هي من نوع (certain) و باقي النماذج من نوع (Probable certain). تم تطبيق التحليل العنقودي لتقييم خصائص المياه واظهرت نتائج التحليل وجود ثلاث مجاميع تتباين في تأثيرها على الخصائص الكيميائية. بالاعتماد على التحليل العنقودي و النسب المئوية المسموح بها للمتغيرات تم اختيار المتغيرات الكيميائية الثلاث الكادميوم والرصاص والكالسيوم لبيان تاثيرها على منطقة الدراسة. لقد تبين من خلال دراسة قيم مؤشر نوعية مياه على مياه نهر دجلة ان هنالك زيادة في قيم المؤشر على طول النهر من بداية دخولة لمدينة بغداد و انتهاء بالتقائة بنهر ديالى مما يدل على تلوث نهر دجلة بشكل واضح


Article
The Assessment of Heavy Metals in Drinking Water from Baquba Water Treatment Plant
تقییم العناصر الثقیلة في میاه شرب مشروع بعقوبة لمعالجة المیاه

Author: Mudhar A. Alwahab Rajib
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2013 Volume: 31 Issue: 12 Part (A) Engineering Pages: 2251-2260
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

This study was achieved for the purpose of determining concentrations of inorganicheavy metals for Baquba drinking water by taking samples from the water treatment plantduring the period (February 2011) to (February 2012), and these tests included heavymetals concentrations: iron, copper, lead, nickel, and cadmium. Then, the results werecompared with the standard of World Health Organization to determine the expectedincrease in concentrations of these elements, accompanied with the side effects on humanhealth.According to this study, it was reached to the fact that the station drinking waterconcentrations are accepted with iron, copper and lead but with high cadmiumconcentrations more than recommended international standards with respect to mostsamples. Also, these tests represented the presence of discrepancy in nickelconcentrations along the tested period above and below the permissible limit.According to the researcher; this is caused by the disposed of sewage waste water inthe course of river in some districts of the province without any treatments and also bythe excessive using of fertilizers in the agricultural fields near the banks of the river.It is unfortunate that the station has low efficiency in minerals treatment due to thelack of modern techniques.


Article
ASSESSMENT OF SOME PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES FOR WATER IN GANGA RIVER AT VARANASI, INDIA
تقييم بعض الخواص الفيزياوية و الكيمياوية للماء في نهر الكنج في مدينة بنارس الهندية

Authors: Suhad A. Abed --- Dr. Ali A. Jazie
Journal: Al-Qadisiyah Journal for Engineering Sciences مجلة القادسية للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 19984456 Year: 2014 Volume: 7 Issue: 2 Pages: 148-164
Publisher: Al-Qadisiyah University جامعة القادسية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT During the last few decades, anthropogenic activities have dramatically attired the quality of surface waters including those of rivers. The rising level of pollutants and changes in mid stream water quality of Ganga River have received serious attention of scientist and policy makers in India. The present investigation was attempted to study water quality of River Ganga and to record the qualitative change in water if any during the three consecutive months of sampling in 2013. A systematic study has been carried out to assess the water quality of River Ganga in Varanasi city. 36 water samples from four sampling stations i.e. By pass bridge upstream, Assi Ghat, Dashswamedh Ghat, and Raj Ghat bridge downstream, were collected and analyzed for physico-chemical parameters (Temp, pH, hardness, total dissolved solids, dissolved oxygen, B.O.D., and free CO2) .The analytical data of various physicochemical parameters indicates that some parameters like pH, hardness and total dissolved solids are found to be in excess than the prescribed limit in some water samples of the study areas as compared to World Health Organization standards (WHOS).

الخلاصة خلال العقود القليلة الاخيرة ازداد تاثير الا نشطة والفعاليات الانسانية والصناعية على نوعية المياه السطحية ومنها مياه الانهار. ان ارتفاع مستوى الملوثات والتغيرات الكبيرة في نوعية المياه في مجرى نهر الكنج جعله محط اهتمام العلماء والساسة في الهند. الدراسة الحالية هي محاولة لتقييم نوعية المياه في نهر الكنج من خلال قياس التغيرات النوعية للمياه التي حدثت خلال ثلاثة اشهر (كانون الثاني, شباط, اذار) لسنة (2013). تم اجراء دراسة منتظمة على مياه نهر الكنج في مدينة بنارس الهندية واخذ (36) نموذج من اربع محطات مختلفة على طول مجرى النهر في المدينة المذكورة اعلاه. تبين من خلال دراسة العوامل المؤثرة على نوعية المياه في نهر الكنج ان بعض العوامل مثل الحامضية, العسرة وكمية المواد الصلبة الذائبة الكلية كانت اكثر من الحدود المسموح بها في مواصفات منظمة الصحة العالمية .


Article
Epidemiological study on intestinal protozoa Entamoeba histolytica & Giardia lamblia in AL-Batha & AL-Gharraf cities of Thi- Qar governorate
وبائية الأوالي المعويةGiardia lamblia و Entamoeba histolyticaبين مراجعي المراكز الصحية في ناحيتي الغراف والبطحاء التابعة لمحافظة ذي قار

Author: بسعاد عقرب معلة العبودي
Journal: JOURNAL OF THI-QAR SCIENCE مجلة علوم ذي قار ISSN: 19918690 Year: 2010 Volume: 2 Issue: 2 Pages: 59-64
Publisher: Thi-Qar University جامعة ذي قار

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Abstract

The present study aims to find out the epidemiology of parasite Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia and prevalence rates and their relationship with esx and age in each hand Batha and Gharraf of the province of Thi-Qar . The proportion of total infection protozoal intestinal E.histolytica and G.lamblia in Gharraf (48%) higher than the infection in the Batha area (11.4 %) and no significant differences between infection of both. The proportion of the total parasite infection E.histolytica(24.9 %) higher than the proportion of parasite infection G.lamblia (3.2 %) in each of the both . The results showed a significant difference between infection and infection of children and adults of both sexes , male and females in the Batha area where the infection rate in male children (17.5 %) is lower than the infection in male adults (31.7 %) a well as for infection of female children (12.2 %) less than when the adults infection rate (40.3 %) did not observe these difference between the infection in children and adults in Garraf .

استهدفت الدراسة الحالية معرفة وبائية طفيلي Entamoeba histolytica و Giardia lamblia ونسب انتشارها وعلاقتهما مع الجنس والعمر في كل من ناحية البطحاء والغراف التابعة لمحافظة ذي قار .كانت نسبة الخمج الكلي بالاوالي المعوية E.histolytica و G.lamblia في ناحية الغراف (48 %) أعلى من نسبة الخمج في ناحية البطحاء (11.4 %) ولا يوجد فروق معنوية بين الخمج عند الذكور والخمج عند الإناث في كلا الناحيتين . وكانت نسبة الإصابة الكلية بطفيلي E.histolytica (24.9 %)أعلى من نسبة الخمج بطفيلي G.lamblia (3.2 %) في كلا الناحيتين . وأظهرت النتائج وجود فروق معنوية بين خمج الأطفال وخمج البالغين ولكلا الجنسين ذكور وإناث في ناحية البطحاء إذ بلغت نسبة الخمج عند الأطفال الذكور (17.5 %) وهي أقل من نسبة الخمج عند الذكور البالغين (31.5 %) وكذلك بالنسبة للخمج عند الإناث الأطفال (12.2 %) أقل من نسبة الخمج عند البالغات (40.3 %) ولم يلاحظ هذه الفروقات بين الخمج عند الأطفال والبالغين في ناحية الغراف .


Article
دراسة بعض الخصائص الفيزيائية والكيميائية والبكتريولوجية في قناة مجمع الجادرية الجامعي، بغداد - العراق

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This study includes some physical, chemical and bacteriological characteristics for the water chunnel of Al-Jaderiya University campus during the winter and spring periods from November 2011 to April 2012, by measuring the counts of Coliforms, Faecal coliforms, streptococci, Faecal streptococci bacteria and total plate count which reached to 2333.6±213.7 cell/ml, also some physical and chemical parameters were studied such as temperature, BOD5 that reached to 16±0.25 ml/l, pH, salinity 2.5±0.12‰ and CO2 6.2±1.1 mg/l during spring period. Results show that there are significant differences in bacterial densities and Limnological characteristics in all five stations under study.

تضمن البحث بعض الخصائص الفيزيائية والكيميائية والبكتريولوجية لمياه قناة مجمع الجادرية الجامعي خلال أشهر الشتاء والربيع للفترة من تشرين الثاني 2011 ولغاية شهر نيسان 2012، بقياس أعداد بكتريا القولون والقولون البرازية وبكتريا المسبحيات والمسبحيات البرازية وقياس العدد الكلي للبكتريا والذي بلغ 2333.6±213.7 خلية/مل خلال الفترة الشتوية. كما تم قياس بعض الصفات الكيمياوية والفيزياوية لعينات مياه القناة مثل درجة الحرارة والمتطلب الحيوي للاوكسجين والذي بلغ أعلى قيمة له 16±0.25 ملغم/لتر خلال الفترة الشتوية والاس الهيدروجيني والملوحة التي وصلت إلى 2.5±0.12‰ في الفترة الربيعية وقياس تركيز غاز ثاني أوكسيد الكاربون حيث بلغ أعلى قيمه خلال الفترة الربيعية ليصل إلى 6.2±1.1 ملغم/لتر. وقد بينت النتائج وجود فروق معنوية في أعداد البكتيريا والصفات اللمنولوجية في محطات الدراسة الخمسة.


Article
Pollution Assessment of Surface and Drainage Water by Heavy Elements in Al Ahrar District, Wasit Governorate, Iraq

Authors: Ayser Al-Shamma --- Reyam A. Hassan
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Science المجلة العراقية للعلوم ISSN: 00672904/23121637 Year: 2018 Volume: 59 Issue: 2B Pages: 886-891
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The study area lies in Wasit governorate south west Kut city, where Al Ahdeb oil field is located to the south of Al Ahrar district. The present study deals with assessment of heavy metals pollution in water by collecting eleven water samples (five samples from drainage and six samples from surface water) in 5th of December 2016. The water samples analysis of heavy elements in the study area shown that water is polluted with high concentration of (Pb, Cd) elements, while the concentration of (Cu, Fe, Zn) in water samples are within the permissible limits of both World Health Organization, and Iraqi standards and there are no hazard effects from these elements. The study detected some diseases that injured the people living in the vicinity of the oil field complex such as scabies, vitiligo, eczema and contact dermatitis, as a result of increasing of (Pb) ion in water samples.


Article
Environmental assessment of heavy metals in surface and groundwater at Samarra City, Central Iraq

Authors: Mahmood Fadhil Abed --- Balsam Salim Al-Tawash --- Shatha Amer Ibrahim
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Science المجلة العراقية للعلوم ISSN: 00672904/23121637 Year: 2018 Volume: 59 Issue: 3A Pages: 1277-1484
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Urban Samarra City is characterized by high population density and wide variation in land use, has led to many environmental problems, for this purpose the environmental assessment became an urgent need for surface and ground water at study area. Three water samples from Tigris River and six groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for heavy metals as Fe, Mn, Zn, Cd, Cu, Co ,Pb, Ni, Cr, As, Mo, Hg, Al, Li, Be, Se, V, U, Sr. Most heavy metal concentrations have shown higher level than standards, such as Fe, Mn, Cd, Pb, Ni, Cr, As, Mo, Hg, Al ,Li ,Be, Se, V, that might be due to anthropogenic activities such as agricultural and the heavy use of fertilizers, besides other activities among them industrial . All water samples have higher concentration level of Uranium except (SW1, SW2, SW3, GW1) might be due to military activity. On the other hand all samples were polluted in Co except SW2, GW4, high value of Co may be caused by industrial processes and oil product spills. Physical and chemical properties values which have obtained in this study are pH, EC, TDS, TSS, DO, BOD,COD and turbidity. Water analyses reveal unacceptable values for physical and chemical parameters according to WHO standard and IQS2009 limits for drinking water, BOD, EC have shown high values in all surface and groundwater samples. Whereas, high values of TDS, COD and turbidity only in ground water samples. The water is not drinkable according to Water Quality Index (WQI) all values are above 100 and, in the sequence (GW1>GW5>GW4>GW3>GW6>GW2), the water quality index of surface water (SW3>SW2>SW1). Mixing of the shallow groundwater and Tigris River water show various patterns affected by other factors such as the aquifer recharge and evaporation, especially at the shallowest parts.

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