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Article
Hardness Removal from Drinking Water

Authors: Ahmed A. M. Ali --- Nawar O. A. Nasser
Journal: Journal of Engineering مجلة الهندسة ISSN: 17264073 25203339 Year: 2006 Volume: 12 Issue: 2 Pages: 405-413
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

This study included three trials that were made during December 2003 by using lime, of 98% w/w calcium hydroxide to find the relation between lime doses to be added and the hardness removed .The trials were performed by adding various doses of lime and measuring the hardness, electrical conductivity and pH in water produce by three plants, Nissan in the north of Baghdad, Al-Karama and Al-Wathba water treatment plant in Baghdad center. The objective of this study is to find the optimum lime dose that gives the minimum hardness content.The results indicate a non linear relation between lime dose added and the hardness removed . The results represented a 36% removal in hardness when using an optimum dose of lime 200 ppm in Nissan water treatment plant, while a percentage removal of 34% was obtained in both Al-Karama and Wathba water treatment plants with 300 ppm dose of lime.The low percentage removal indicates the presence of non-carbonate hardness which could not be removed by lime alone.

تضمنت هذه الدر اسه ثلاث محاولات أجريت خلال كانون الأول 2003باستخدام هيدروكسيد الكالسيوم 98% نسبه وزنيه لإيجاد العلاقة بين جرعة هيدروكسيد الكالسيوم وإزالة العسرة ,المحاولات تمت بإضافة جرع مختلفة من هيدروكسيد الكالسيوم وقياس العسرة والتوصيل الكهربائي وقوة أيون الهيدروجين للماء المسحوب من ثلاث محطات لتصفية ماء الشرب وهي مشروع نيسان شمال مدينة بغداد ,مشروع الكرامة ومشروع الوثبة مركز مدينة بغداد ,الهدف من هذه الدر اسه هو إيجاد الجرعة القصوى من هيدروكسيد الكالسيوم التي تعطي اقل تركيز للعسره. النتائج أظهرت أن هناك علاقة لا خطيه بين جرع هيدروكسيد الكالسيوم المضافة والعسره المزالة ,النتائج تمثلت بإزالة 36% من العسره عند إضافة أقصى جرعه من هيدروكسيد الكالسيوم 200 ملغملتر في مشروع نيسان بينما نسبة أزاله 34% تم الحصول عليها في مشروعي الكرامة والوثبة لجرع 300 ملغملتر النسبة القليلة للازاله أشارت إلى وجود عسره لا كاربونيه والتي لا يمكن أزالتها باستخدام هيدروكسيد الكالسيوم لوحده


Article
Water Treatment of Cooling Towers Blowdown by Reverse Osmosis

Authors: Ammar A. Beddai --- Adil Al-Hemiri
Journal: Journal of Engineering مجلة الهندسة ISSN: 17264073 25203339 Year: 2005 Volume: 11 Issue: 2 Pages: 421-428
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

An experimental investigation was conducted to study the effect of operating parameters on the permeable conductivity and product rate were studied for reverse osmosis process. The parameters studied were: - conductivity of feed water in the range of (1000-1500 us/cm), pH in the range of (4-10) and operating pressure in the range of (3-6 bar).The best operating conditions, which lead to good quantity and quality for water product, are: (1000 us/cm) conductivity of feed water, (7) pH and (6 bar) operating pressure. At these conditions the permeable conductivity is (52.905 us/cm) and the product rate is (328.143 1/hr).

تمت دراسة عوامل التشغيل التي تؤثر على النفاذية ونوعية الماء الناتج في عملية التنافذ العكسي وهذه العوامل كانت: موصلية الماء الداخل والاس الهيدروجيني والضغط التشغيليالنتائج دلت على ان الظروف التشغيلية التي تحقق كمية ونوعية عالية من الماء الناتج من عملية التنافذ العكسي هي: موصلية الماء الداخل (0us/cm100 (7) ph (والضغط التشغيلي (6 bar). عند هذة الظروف تكون موصلية الماء الناتج (52.905 us/cm) وانتاجية الغشاء (328.143 1/h).


Article
Evaluation of Potable Water Quality of AL-Diwaniyah Water Treatment Plants

Author: Ahmed Makki AL-Sulaimen
Journal: KUFA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING مجلة الكوفة الهندسية ISSN: 25230018 Year: 2009 Volume: 1 Issue: 1 Pages: 40-58
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

The selection of proper treatment is of prime importance in the providing of drinking water. In this study tow WTPs in Diwaniyah were selected to evaluate their water quality in producing potable water according to the Iraqi standards. The two plants had high removal efficiency in turbidity which reached to ( 90 – 95) % and the turbidity of the treated water did not exceed 5 NTU.As for the natural constituents in raw water Ca, Mg and Na, their concentrations decreased in the treated water, but were within the desirable standards. Concentration of Al appeared also, as alum is added in the coagulation process. The final effluent had concentrations of Al ranging 0.01 - 0.02 mg/l. Fe with concentrations of 0.01 -0.2 mg/l appeared also, but Fe salts were not added for treatment. Must therefore follow-up tests of water on an on going basis to determine the cause. The two plants are efficient in bacterial removal as pre and post chlorination is applied. The residual chlorine in the effluent from the plants ranged 2.0 - 2.5 mg/l, which was enough to leave 0.5 mg/l in the distribution system.

أختيار طريقة المعالجة ألأفضل تعتبر من اهم الاولويات لانتاج مياه الشرب. في هذه الدراسة تم اختيار محطتين في مدينة الديوانية لتقييم ادائهم لانتاج ماء الشرب بموجب المواصفات العراقية الخاصه بالماء. في المحطتين كانت نسب ازالة العكورة عالية وصلت 90 - 95 % ولم تتعدى عكورة الماء الناتج 5 درجة عكورة. أما العناصر الطبيعية في الماء, الكالسيوم, المغنسيوم والصويوم فقد قلت تراكيزها في الماء المعالج ولكنها كانت ضمن التراكيز المقبول بها . ظهرت تراكيز الألمنيوم حيث يضاف الشب كمادة مخثرة في مرحلة التخثير. بلغت تراكيز الالمنيوم في الناتج النهائي (0.01 - 0.02) ملغ/لتر. ايضا ظهرت تراكيز للحديد بين (0.01 - 0.2 ) ملغ/لتر بالرغم من عدم اضافة املاح الحديد الى المياه المعالجة. لذا يجب متابعة فحوصات المياه بشكل مستمر لتحديد السبب. عملية التعقيم كانت ذات كفاءة عالية لقتل البكتريا الممرضة. تركيزالكلور المتبقي تباين بين 2.0 - 2.5 ملغ/لتر بحيث وصل الى المستهلك بتركيز 0.5 ملغ/لتر.


Article
Performance of Pulsator Clarifier (Low Turbidity)

Authors: Salam K. Al-Dawery --- Raad M. Hussain --- Kadhem M. Shibeeb
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2007 Volume: 8 Issue: 1 Pages: 9-17
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Experimental and theoretical investigations are presented on flocculation process in pulsator clarifier. Experimental system was designed to study the factors that affecting the performance of pulsator clarifier. These factors were water level in vacuum chamber which range from 60 to 150 cm, rising time of water in vacuum chamber which having times of 20, 30 & 40 seconds, and sludge blanket height which having heights of 20, 30 & 40 cm. The turbidity and pH of raw water used were 200 NTU and 8.13 respectively. According to the jar test, the alum dose required for this turbidity was 20 mg/l. The performance parameters of pulsator clarifier such as, turbidity, total solids TS, shear rate, volume concentration of sludge blanket and the flocculation criteria were studied. It was observed that by decreasing the water level in vacuum tube and by increasing the rising time and sludge blanket height, low turbidity of output water attained. Moreover, flocculation criteria value GCt was within the optimum range values (100-500). A theoretical models was applied for total solids TS of output water. The difference between experimental and theoretical data was ranged between (11-24)% of mean deviation at water level range of (125-150) cm and sludge blanket height 20 cm.


Article
Kinetics, Thermodynamic and Mechanism of Ultrasonic Degradation of Benzene in Aqueous Solution
خصائص الثرموداینمك والحركیة باستخدام الموجات فوق الصوتیة من تحلیل محالیل البنزین المؤمن

Authors: Ismail K.Al-Khateeb --- Adawiya J.Haider --- Ahmed M. Mohammed
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2014 Volume: 32 Issue: 1 Part (A) Engineering Pages: 34-45
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

Ultrasonic technology, as an innovative technology,was used for degradation of benzene in an aqueous solution under ultrasound frequency of 20 kHz at different temperatures with initial concentration of 100 and 200 mg/L. Kinetic and thermodynamic of benzene degradation in aqueous solution were investigated.While the mechanism of benzene sonolysis was discussed. The degradation rate of benzene increased with increasing electric power, sonication time and by decreasing liquid volume, temperature and initial concentration of benzene. The beneficial effect of which power electrical or ultrasound on removal rates is believed to be due to increased cavitational activity occurring at higher levels ofpower. As power increases, the number of collapsing (effective) cavities also increases, which is leading to enhanced degradation rates. Thermodynamic parameters indicated that benzene degradation was spontaneous and exothermic in nature. The obtained data was fitted through the pseudo-first order model.


Article
Evaluation of a Number of Water Treatment Plants in Kirkuk Governorate using the Water Quality Index

Authors: AbdulRazaq Khader Abdul Wahid --- Idan I. Ghdhban --- Rodhan Abdullah Salih
Journal: Tikrit Journal of Engineering Sciences مجلة تكريت للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 1813162X 23127589 Year: 2018 Volume: 25 Issue: 1 Pages: 49-59
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Abstract

A study was conducted on sixteen water purification plants in Kirkuk governorate to evaluate the treatment of water in them, where physical and chemical tests were conducted for raw water and treated water for a period of (6) months from December until May. Temperature, turbidity, pH, Total Dissolved Solid (TDS), Electric Conductivity (EC), alkali, Total Hardness (TH) and calcium (Ca+2) were measured. Water quality index Canadian method (CCME) was used to classify raw water quality and treated water. The results showed that the raw water for all stations was classified as category (4) (bad) during the study period. The treated water was different for the treatment plants. Two of the treatment plants recorded good efficiency in water treatment (AL-Shallalah plant and Sin AL-Thiban) the treated water remained in category (2) (good). While the water quality of AL-Mosanaa plant indicated that there was a problem in the treatment of water in this plant, the treated water remained in category (4) bad during the study period. Water quality index fluctuated for other plants during the study period. The study also showed that alkali values of all stations were higher than the allowable limit for raw water and treated water.


Article
Synthesis, Characterization and Kinetic Study of poly(vinyl acetate)-g-Chitosan and its Use in Removal of Cadmium (II) ions from Water

Authors: Ali Jasim Hammood --- Salam A. H. Al-Ameri --- Zyad H. Jawad Al-Qaisi
Journal: Al-Nahrain Journal of Science مجلة النهرين للعلوم ISSN: (print)26635453,(online)26635461 Year: 2019 Volume: 22 Issue: 2 Pages: 1-11
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

The grafted vinyl acetate copolymerization lying on chitosan in weak acidic aqueous solution was examined via using K2S2O8 as initiator. FTIR spectra, DSC, DTG and TGA were used for graft polymer characterizing. The monomer to chitosan ratio was tested and the optimal grafting conditions were affixed. the highest grafting percentage PG of production polymers have been applied to remove Cd(II) ions from water samples through adsorption experiments at pH=7. The amounts of adsorbed metal ion on the polymers was estimated using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The temperature effect on Cd(II) adsorption was studied too. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms as well as kinetic study equations were employed to fit the experimental data. The results of the adsorption equilibrium for Cd(II) fitted well to Langmuir isotherm and the removal percentage at 30°C after 5 min is 76.65 % and the thermodynamic parameters for the adsorption are ΔH= 96.87 kJ/mol ΔS= 339.19 J/mol K and ΔG= -5.11, -11.13 and -11.78 kJ/mol in different temperatures. The kinetic study of these adsorption isotherms showed that all these isotherms correlates well with the second order equation.


Article
Phosphorus Removal from Water and Waste Water by Chemical Precipitation Using Alum and Calcium Chloride

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Abstract

Phosphorus is usually the limiting nutrient for eutrophication in inland receiving waters; therefore, phosphorus concentrations must be controlled. In the present study, a series of jar test was conducted to evaluate the optimum pH, dosage and performance parameters for coagulants alum and calcium chloride. Phosphorus removal by alum was found to be highly pH dependent with an optimum pH of 5.7-6. At this pH an alum dosage of 80 mg/l removed 83 % of the total phosphorus. Better removal was achieved when the solution was buffered at pH = 6. Phosphorus removal was not affected by varying the slow mixing period; this is due to the fact that the reaction is relatively fast.The dosage of calcium chloride and pH of solution play an important role in phosphorus removal. The removal efficiency increases with increasing pH, and the optimum dosage of CaCl2 was 60 mg/l. Alum demonstrated much better results in phosphorus removal than CaCl2.

يعتبر الفسفور من المواد الملوثة للماء والتي تؤدي الى عملية التحول في الحياة المائية (Eutrophication) ولهذا فمن الضروري السيطرة على تركيزه في الماء.في هذه الدراسة تم اجراء سلسلة من التجارب باستخدام جهاز (jar test) لايجاد افضل قيمة للرقم الهيدروجيني وكمية المادة الكيمياوية المضافة.لقد وجد ان افضل قيمة للرقم الهيدروجيني في حالة استخدام الشب هو من 5.5-6 وافضل كمية مستخدمة هي 80 ملغم/لتر والتي تعمل على ازالة 83% من كمية الفسفور الذائب في الماء وكانت عملية الازالة افضل عندما تمت السيطرة على قيمة الرقم الهيدروجيني على قيمة 6.لم تتأثر كفاءة الازالة بتغيير الزمن اللازم للتحريك البطئ و ذلك لكون التفاعل سريع.اما في حالة ازالة الفسفور باستخدام كلوريد الكالسيوم فان كمية الكلوريد المضاف والرقم الهيدروجيني للمحلول كان لها دور مهم في عملية الترسيب وان افضل قيمة للرقم الهيدروجيني هو 11 وافضل قيمة لكمية الكلوريد هي 60 ملغم/لتر.دلت النتائج على ان الشب اعطى كفاءة افضل في عملية ترسيب الفسفور بالمقارنة مع كلوريد الكالسيوم.


Article
IRAQI WATER TREATMENT PLANTS PROCESS CONTROL BY MEASURING EFFLUENT TURBIDITY
السيطرة على وحدات معالجة مياة الشرب في العراق بقياس كمية العكورة الناتجة

Authors: Jwad Khadhum. Ghaziy م.م. جواد كاظم غازي --- Ali H. GHAWI1 د.علي هادي غاوي
Journal: Al-Qadisiyah Journal for Engineering Sciences مجلة القادسية للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 19984456 Year: 2010 Volume: 3 Issue: 4 Pages: 373-381
Publisher: Al-Qadisiyah University جامعة القادسية

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Abstract

The Al-Dewanyia Water General Authority (DWGA) operates and maintains four water treatment plants to produce potable water for 300,000 inhabitations in Al-Dewanyia city. Surface water from Al-Dewanyia river is treated by aluminum sulphate (alum) coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, filtration, and chlorine disinfection (clearwell). DWGA has set goals for turbidity for clarified and filtered water. These goals pertain to water inside the Water Treatment Plant (WTP), outside the water treatment plant, and in the distribution system, DWGA continues to meet the Iraqi Ministry of Health Standard of 5 NTU. Each day at DWGA WTPs, chemists measure the turbidity of water from each individual clarifier and from each individual filter. The WTP Manager reviews this data and uses it to make process control decisions about chemical dosage and filter backwash. This paper explains DWGA’s Turbidity Goal for filtered water, presents recent data, and describes how WTP managers use this data for process control. Any water treatment plant in Iraq can use these procedures. The results can be better process control and higher quality water

مديرية ماء الديوانية تشغل و تصين اربعة محطات لمعالجة مياه الشرب في مدينة الديوانية و التي تخدم 300,000 ألف نسمة. ان مصدر المياه المعالج هو نهر الديوانية و تستخدم وسائل التلبيد (إضافة الشب) و التخثير و الترسيب و الترشيح و التعقيم في تصفية المياه. مديرية ماء الديوانية و ضعت أهداف لإزالة العكورة من حوضي الترسيب و الترشيح. هذة الأهداف تتمثل بالحصول على ماء صالح للشرب و مطابق للمواصفات العراقية و البالغة NTU 5 . تم قياس تركيز العكورة يوميا من أحواض الترسيب و أحواض الترشيح. المهندسين المسئولين عن تشغيل المشروع قاموا بتحليل تلك القياسات لاتخاذ قرار حول مقدار الشب المضاف و عملية غسل الفلاتر. من خلال هذا البحث تم توضيح وسيلة فعالة من خلال القياسات اليومية لتركيز العكورة للحصول على ماء مطابق للمواصفات العراقية.ان هذة التقنية يمكن استخدامها في أي محطة معالجة لمياه الشرب في العراق.


Article
Porcelanite Rocks as A Dual Filter Media in Water Treatment Plants

Authors: Batool Mohammed Al-Bayaty --- Awatif Soaded Al-Saqqar
Journal: Journal of Engineering مجلة الهندسة ISSN: 17264073 25203339 Year: 2008 Volume: 14 Issue: 3 Pages: 2643-2653
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Porcelanite rocks were selected to be the dual media with sand in this study to improve the performance of the filtration process in water treatment plants. The work required installing a pilot filtration unit in the location of the filters in one of the water treatment plants, so the experimental work was performed on the same influent water of the filters in the plant (the effluent from the sedimentation tank. The pilot filtration consists of three plastic column filters, working parallel and simultaneously. The first contains 70 cm sand (the same type used in the filters of the plant), the second and third were dual filters (porcelanite with sand) of different depths and sizes using different filtration rates (5, 10, and 15 m/hr). The results showed that the dual filters had better performance than sand filters in turbidity and bacterial removal, less initial head losses and less total head losses at different filtration rates.

اختيرت صخور البورسيلينايت لتكون وسط ثنائي مع الرمل في هذه الدراسة لتحسين أداء عملية الترشيح في مشاريع تصفية المياه. تطلب العمل إنشاء منظومة ترشيح في موقع المرشحات لاحدى محطات التصفية, لإجراء العمل التجريبي على نفس الماء الداخل لمرشحات المحطة (الماء الخارج من حوض الترسيب). تتكون المنظومة من ثلاث أعمدة ترشيح تعمل بشكل متوازٍ وفي آن واحد بحيث احتوى الأول على 70 سم من الرمل (نفس الرمل المستخدم في المرشحات للمحطة), والثاني والثالث مرشحات ثنائية تحتوي على البورسيلينايت والرمل بأعماق واحجام مختلفة وباستخدام معدلات ترشيح (5, 10 و 15) م/ساعة. أظهرت النتائج بان المرشحات الثنائية كفوءة لإزالة العكرة والبكتريا, أقل في خسائر الشحنة الابتدائية وأقل في خسائر الشحنة الكلية لمختلف معدلات الترشيح.

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