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Article
Arbitrariness As Seen By Arab and English Linguists

Author: Jassim Mohammed Rayhan
Journal: journal of Human Sciences مجلة العلوم الانسانية ISSN: 19922876/25239899 Year: 2014 Volume: 1 Issue: 22 Pages: 303-310
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

language is both individual and social process .It is individual in the sense that it expresses one’s thoughts and feelings .It is also social since its use demands , in most cases, a speaker and a listener. A pre-requisite for communication is existence of common ground on which the users of the language should agree.At present, Linguists realize that what is true of one language is not necessarily true of another .Thus each language is studied according to its logic. In other words, languages follow no universal logic. Each language provides an intricate system of symbols that dissects nature in its own way. It is found that every nation has satisfied in using its language as far as it achieves the individuals needs. Though languages have been found to be basically arbitrary. They are not based on logic as in the case of mathematical concept. It is hard to explain why this object or concept is given a certain name. Also if there are certain justifiable natural forms in every language , they cannot be regarded more than exceptions. Therefore, arbitrariness is the dominant Property of language and these exceptions support and reinforce that domination.

Keywords

Linguists --- arbitrriness --- arab --- lnguage --- logic --- written language


Article
The Translation of ( No ) in Televised Series: A comparative Study of Arabic Manual And Machine Translation
ترجمة الاداة (لا) في المسلسلات المتلفزة : دراسة مقارنة للترجمتين العربية اليدوية و الآلية

Author: Lubab Zeyad Mahmoud لباب زياد محمود
Journal: Journal of Al-Ma'moon College مجلة كلية المأمون ISSN: 19924453 Year: 2011 Issue: 18-E Pages: 53-71
Publisher: AlMamon University College كلية المامون الجامعة

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Abstract

This research tackles the question of translating the particle (no ) in manual against machine translation of English televised series and programmes into Arabic ; the changes taking place whether in style , level , explicitness and aesthetics . The research also studies whether the human translator enjoys the needed level of awareness , knowledge , linguistic capabilities , stylistics , as well as linguistic flexibilities . Hence , the researcher lays the following hypotheses : - The inevitable shifts taking place in the translation of the particle (no) for the efficient human translator . - Neglicance of these shifts in machine translation . - Human translator produces explicit translation , whereas machine translation is literal , aesthetically poor and vague (i.e.implicit) translation . Due to the absence of previous studies , the researcher chose some televised spoken materials , recorded them by writing down , analyzing and finally proposing the most suitable alternatives . The results reached confirmed the hypotheses made by the researcher . Finally, the researcher came up with a number of recommendations and suggestions for further studies .

يتناول البحث الحالي مسألة ترجمة الأداة ( لا ) في الترجمة البشرية مقارنة بالترجمة الآلية للمسلسلات و البرامج الأجنبية إلى اللغة العربية والتغيرات الحاصلة سواء من ناحية الاسلوب أم المستوى القواعدي أم الوضوح أم في النواحي الجمالية و البلاغية . كما يتناول البحث أيضاً معرفة مدى تمتع المترجم البشري العربي بالمستوى المطلوب من الادراك و المعرفة و القدرات اللغوية و الاسلوبية و مرونته اللغوية . و عليه وضعت الباحثة الفرضيات الاتية :- وجود تغيرات حتمية في ترجمة الاداة (لا) لدى المترجم البشري الحصيف . - غياب مثل هذه التغيرات في الترجمة الالية . - الترجمة الواضحة هي نتاج المترجم البشري ، اما الترجمة الآلية فتنتج ترجمة ضعيفة ومفتقرة للنواحي الجمالية بالاضافة الى غموضها . ونظرا لغياب البحوث والدراسات السابقة في هذا الموضوع ، قامت الباحثة باختيار بعض المسلسلات و البرامج و الافلام . ثم قامت الباحثة بتوثيقها و تسجيلها عن طريق التدوين و من ثم حللتها وذكرت البدائل الممكنة لترجمة الاداة (لا) و جاءت النتائج مطابقة للفرضيات التي وضعتها .

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